The chapter of the bishopric Naumburg-Zeitz drew to a close when the last bishop, Julius von Pflug, died in 1564. Consequently, administrators of the Saxon electors took over the reign of the territory. In 1657 Moritz, the youngest son of the elector Johann Georg I., took possession of his share of the inheritance and became duke of the newly created duchy Sachsen-Zeitz. His Baroque-style "Moritzburg Castle" was used as residence for following dukes until the year 1718.
In 1815 Napoleon lost the war and, associated with him Saxony had to give up parts of its territory to the kingdom of Prussia. Zeitz became a Prussian district town, which developed into a modern industrial town during the so called Industrial Revolution. Factories for producing pianos, machines and prams influenced the townscape into the 20th century.
The acquired image of a grey industrial town has remained to this day. But many things have changed since the German reunion in 1990. Today, the old residence town of Zeitz is worth living in and has turned into a lovable small town with cultural-historical sights reflecting over 1000 years of history.